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Faye Hammill
Joined: 4 months ago
Posts: 25
 

Patrick - I enjoyed your keynote enormously. I'm struck by the idea of newspaper supplements filling the gap between daily paper and magazine (just as monthly reviews fill the gap between magazine and book). I wonder about what you think are the best approaches to studying the newspaper supplement? Has there been any work at all published on this topic in relation to Germany or to other countries? I also wonder how we can combine methods from newspaper studies and from magazine studies. 


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Christophe Premat
Joined: 4 months ago
Posts: 9
 

Many thanks for a very interesting presentation Patrick, it was inspiring and gave us many perspectives! 

I have a question regarding the presentation of nudity in the German magazines (Die Dame...). Were the discussions about §278 (abortion) dealt with in these magazines? You focused on the covers and photographies, I wonder whether the avant-garde promoted this topic in the political agenda of the 1920s.

Regards,

Christophe


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Tim Satterthwaite
Joined: 5 months ago
Posts: 54
 

@cpremat
I haven't studied Die Dame (though I suspect it will have steered clear of such dangerous territory). Most of the leading Weimar  monthlies carried photos of nude and semi-nude female models - typically, dancers. In Revue des Monats and Das Magazin, it was mildly erotic fantasy material, targeting, presumably, a male readership. UHU is more interesting: you get the studio erotica, but it also carried images of utopian nudist culture (Nacktkultur). There is a chapter in my book, Modernist Magazines and the Social Ideal (due out in September), which explores this theme in detail.

 


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Michel Hockx
Joined: 4 months ago
Posts: 14
 

Thank you, Patrick, for a great overview of the iconic turn in German magazines. The various styles and formats that you show are all present in Chinese magazines of the period as well. The developments in global magazine culture were truly contemporaneous. Newspaper supplements are indeed interesting. In the Chinese case, there were many of them, and some have iconic cultural status. They have been used as "small archives" especially for the study of literary history of the period for quite some time, but there hasn't been much thinking about approaches that bring out the differences between supplements and other types of journals. An additional problem (I find) is that newspaper supplements are not as easily preserved and digitized as magazines.


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Andrew Thacker
Joined: 4 months ago
Posts: 10
 

@michelhockx That's fascinating to hear about how the same styles and formats were appearing in Chinese magazines at the time. I guess it raises the question of the networks of transmission that enabled this sharing - but also of how different national magazine traditions adapted European modernist forms and melded them with their own print culture (the argument explored in relation to the modernist little magazine by Eric Bulson in his Little Magazine, World Form book).

 


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Andrew Thacker
Joined: 4 months ago
Posts: 10
 

 I like Faye's point about those formats of magazine that fall between pre-existing categories - I would also like to hear a bit more about the 'city slicker magazines' in Patrick's presentation, the ones he described as (I think) magazines in 'booklet formats'.


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Patrick Rössler
Joined: 4 months ago
Posts: 19
 

Dear Faye, many thanks! Actually the supplements are one of the most important while least researched periodicals in Germany and worldwide. My fellow colleague Konrad Dussel has published an article on the topic in a volume I edited a few years ago (Deutsche illustrierte Presse – Journalismus und visuelle Kultur in der Weimarer Republik), unfortunately in German only. He will, however, give a talk later during this conference on "Der rote Stern" - an important supplement of the Communist press in the 1920s. He is for sure the person to talk about this issue, and actually I see no methodolocial problem when studying these media. It is more a problem of access. All best, Patrick 


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Patrick Rössler
Joined: 4 months ago
Posts: 19
 

@cpremat

Dear Christophe,

many thanks, well observed! The paragraph in Germany is §218, and there are two areas where this issue was discussed in magazines: First, all magazines of the political left (Communists and social democrats), there are even special issues on this matter (of "Eulenspiegel", for instance), because abortion was always a social issue and problem ot the poor and the working classes. Second, all "Lebensreform" magazines of the nature lovers and nudists, they also dealt with "marital hygiene" and, as a side effect, with unwanted pregnancy.

Please note that you are speakting of "the avant-garde" - I so do this sometimes, but analytically this is pretty confusing because there is not one single avant-garde in Germany in the 1920s. We know the term form the arts, but politically, for instance, many socialists were avant-garde, and also the leadres of Lebensreform movement were the avant-garde for their followers.

Pleas note as well that the topic of nudity in the magazines is a completely different field of analysis, with almost no relationship to the §218 topic. If you are interested in the prevalence of nudity, I pulished an article recently on this matter in the leading German magazine for photo history:

Rössler, Patrick: Schönheit! Natur! Lebensfreude! Nackte Körper in der populären Presse der Zwischenkriegszeit. In: Fotogeschichte (37) 2017, Nr. 143, S. 5-18.

All best,
Patrick

 

 

 


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Patrick Rössler
Joined: 4 months ago
Posts: 19
 

@timsatterthwaite

Dear Tim,

your assumption is correct: There is only one instance of nudity in "Die Dame" - when they report on "The exotic", meaning photos of semi-nude natives in Africa, Asia or South America, taken from reports of expedition travels (see also the talk of Laura Truxa on Vu in Panel 1). In the popular weeklies for a broader public, there is almost no nudity because they circulated among family members of all age and publishers did not want to scare away their audience. As you pointed out, the monthly magazines were the place for nudity in a scope that is surprising even for today's eyes. Your book will definitively be a goor read on this!

Patrick

 


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Patrick Rössler
Joined: 4 months ago
Posts: 19
 

@michelhockx

Dear Michel,

thanks for your observations from China I was not familiar with, obviously for reasons of limited access to these materials (beside my unability to read these materials). But your final sentence raised the general problem for the study of supplements: They were often not collected and preserved together with the newspaper issues they came with - and on the other hand they were not registered as media outlets in their own right. From Germany we know that press services produced these supplements for many different newspapers from different regions, and the newspapers just added their masthead (I was able to obtain a few examples with any masthead missing, just blank in the upper part of the cover). So far, we do not even have a survey, which type of supplement was added to which newspaper. Still a long way to go!

Patrick

 


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Patrick Rössler
Joined: 4 months ago
Posts: 19
 

@athacker

Dear Andrew,

what you refer to as "city slicker magazines" is what Tim addressed as monthlies such as "Uhu", "Das Magazin", "Das Leben", "Revue des Monats" etc. In a large-scale research project we digitized hundreds of them and they are available for free at

https://www.illustrierte-presse.de/

left button. If you speak German, there are small portraits of each magazine and, of course, an almost complete imagery of these fascinating periodicals. We would not see them as avant-garde in Germany (maybe with one exception: "Der Querschnitt"), but definitively as "popular" in the sense of this conference.

If I state that these magazines are not avant-garde from our today's perspective, I still have to admit that in their time they were of course seen as something special, for the young, for the metropolitans, and nothing for "normal" people. Their content is a wonderful source today for the cultural movements of the period and the topics that moved the people - and, according to my opinion, an important complement to the study of newspapers with their standardized reporting of daily events.

Have fun on our webiste, the visual material is georgeous!

Patrick

 


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Laura Truxa
Joined: 4 months ago
Posts: 11
 
Posted by: @lemmy60

@timsatterthwaite

Dear Tim,

your assumption is correct: There is only one instance of nudity in "Die Dame" - when they report on "The exotic", meaning photos of semi-nude natives in Africa, Asia or South America, taken from reports of expedition travels (see also the talk of Laura Truxa on Vu in Panel 1). In the popular weeklies for a broader public, there is almost no nudity because they circulated among family members of all age and publishers did not want to scare away their audience. As you pointed out, the monthly magazines were the place for nudity in a scope that is surprising even for today's eyes. Your book will definitively be a goor read on this!

Patrick

 

Dear Mr. Satterthwaite and Mr. Rössler,

First, thank you for this fascinating and thorough overview.

As a complement to your interesting remarks, I would like to add that the increased erotization of the female body, often expressed through nude or semi-nude photography, in the interwar mainstream press, was also connected to the development of the topic of physical beauty as a major theme in modern women’s photo-illustrated magazines.
For instance in France, Alexie Geers has shed a new light on the connexions between the cosmetic industry’s advertising publications and mainstream women’s periodicals. I believe this article might be of relevance (in french) :

https://journals.openedition.org/clio/12177

Beside its role in a new culture of health focusing on the (athletic) body (See Mr. Satterthwaite's study), the nude or semi-nude apparently therefore also became a more acceptable, mainstream way of depicting women, even in publications that were not directly intended for the male gaze — as physical beauty was becoming the main attribute of modern femininity (ideally embodied by the movie star).

The line is I believe sometimes quite fine between the glamourous portrait, modern lifestyle reports (and what you call "Nacktkultur") and erotica, even during the afterwar era. The french magazine Paris-Hollywood, initially a fan-magazine that slowly turned into unabashed erotica under the guise of an interest in nudism might be a good example.

These ambiguities can also be observed in VU, which as I argue tries to cater both to a masculine and a feminine audience. Despite being a mainstream publication it does occasionally include nude photography.

2007.237.256.184A185P01C

(Issue 256)

However as Mr. Rössler point out, the nude is most commonly found in depictions of "Exotic beauties" and articles about French colonies, with the excuse of a pseudo-anthropological gaze.

2007.237.311.2.38A39P02C

(Issue 311)

It would be very interesting to study how the cultural and visual motif of the female nude evolved in magazine as of the 1930s, wedged as it is between the female and male gaze, fashion magazines's ideal vision of femininity, modern ideals of the healthy body, exoticism and erotica.


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Michel Hockx
Joined: 4 months ago
Posts: 14
 

@lemmy60

Not all Chinese magazines are in Chinese! Here's an example from 1924, for your amusement.

Screen Shot 2020 03 31 at 11.16.39 AM

 


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Michel Hockx
Joined: 4 months ago
Posts: 14
 

@lauratruxa

I have some examples of nudity in Chinese magazines of the same period in my upcoming keynote lecture. A scholar called Liying Sun (PhD Heidelberg, now teaching at Iowa) has worked extensively on nudity in Chinese pictorials of the 1930s and has traced many of the photographic images to German and US publications.

 


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