Thanks for your presentation! It is really interesting the contrast of ancient and modern visual representations in Mexican Folkways, as you have shown.
My question is: beside visual art and advertising, what happened to the discourse of women modernity in the magazine? Did you analyse texts from F. Toor or for the magazine’s contributors? What did they say about the gender issue? I was wondering if, in their texts, the discourse about modern-indigenous women were more ambiguous or mixed?
You said that the magazine was bilingual, could you tell me if translators were mentioned and what was the sense of translation (English into Spanish or viceversa)? Was this type of publication unique? Do you know other cases of bilingual magazines at that time in Mexico?
Thanks again for your answer.
All the best,
Hi Laura and Claudia, I just posted a similar question to Claire in the Keynotes Q&A. It will be interesting to have your different perspectives on this!
Dear Laura, dear Tim,
I am glad that the information was of interest to you and that questions have come up.
In Mexican Folkways, there is no explicit discourse on feminine modernity, not even on femininity in general. It should be noted that despite the revolutionary stimulus and the consequent epistemological renewal, the inclusion of women in the public sphere was sparse since their participation beyond the domestic sphere contradicted a firmly established patriarchalism and social conventions.
The magazine is kind of a record of holidays, mores and customs and their performers, both female and male, but its texts still do not include a critical reflection on gender roles. The critical thinking of the time focuses on the irruption of aesthetic canons (and, therefore, of artistic production), as well as on a new social composition, promoting the inclusion (at least symbolically) of the masses, which they were made up of indigenous peoples, peasants, and an emerging working class. The heart of the feminist struggle of that time was far from Mexico City, in the Mexican southeast, in the state of Mérida. Elvia Carrillo Puerto is recognized as one of the main representatives.
As for translations, in most cases, the translator is recognized. Translations flowed both ways, texts by US anthropologists or writers were translated from English to Spanish, and vice versa the texts of Mexican writers were translated from Spanish to English. It is of particular interest to observe the evolution of translations, throughout the publication you can see the professionalization of the task. In the first numbers, translations were made literally, word by word, which altered significantly the meaning of the texts. As time goes by, translations improve considerably.
and its translation.